New: Panait Musoiu and the Anarchism in Romania

Unbeugsam CoverAnarchism in Romania reached its golden age before the First World War. The distribution of anarchist ideas is closely connected with Panait Mușoiu, the most outstanding libertarian publisher of the country. In his „Library of the Revista Ideei“ there were published anarchist classics, revolutionary literature and educational pamphlets in thematic diversity. In Romania, „the country, in which thinking is a crime, where there is no greater and more dangerous criminal than the man who thinks” (Mușoiu), the libertarian ideas and their protagonists faced an aggressive alliance of Capital, Church and State. Syndicalism and anarchism gained the most popularity in the multi-ethnic workers-movement.  Prominent personalities of the workers-movement, like Stefan Gheorghiu, distributed the writings of the press from Mușoiu and popularized the syndicalist “direct action” method of fighting. He and the proactive Iuliu Neagu-Negulescu agitated for class-struggling unions independent from political parties.

The present study with selected translations is more than a biography. It quarries numerous well-grounded pieces of information about the workers-movement of Romania and mediates general knowledge of the regional history. It puts the focus on the anarchist and syndicalist currents. 

Martin Veith: Unbeugsam – Ein Pionier des rumänischen Anarchismus – Panait Mușoiu

(The Book is in German language)

344 Seiten, Verlag Edition AV, Juni 2013, ISBN: 978-3-86841-076-1, 19.90 Euro

Content as PDF here

Index as PDF here

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A short overview of the development of Romania

Excursion: State-capitalism not socialism

The mediated picture of Panait Mușoiu in state-capitalism (Realsozialismus)

Chapter 1:

Panait Mușoiu – the son of a day-laborer family becomes a revolutionary

Anarchist traces in Brăila

Chapter 2:

Anarchism and Syndicalism

The Phalanstère in Scăieni (Prahova)

How did anarchism and syndicalism get widespread in Romania?

Anarchist publications

Syndicalist publications

Chapter 3:

In Botoșani

Election campaign for the Workers-Party (“Partidul Muncitorilor“)

The paper “Proletarul” (“The proletarian”) and tribute for Eminescu

The 1. May 1892

Excursion: Haymarket

Chapter 4:

In Bucharest: From the “Muncă” to the “Expulsion of the workers-movement”

Repression and Torture

Translations of Engels and Marx

For direct action and anti-parliamentarianism

The “Expulsion”

Chapter 5:

A view on Romania and the workers-movement till the eve of the First World War

The “first Generation”

The “second Generation”

What´s workers-movement supposed to mean?

The movement grows despite repression

Chapter 6:

The social-democrats and Marxists´ fight against anarchism and syndicalism


Statements against Anarchism and Anarcho-Syndicalism

Union and party inner-organizational fight against anarchism and (anarcho-)syndicalism

Chapter 7:

Panait Zosin

Panait Zosin: Response to Nădejde

Panait Zosin: An old hand

Brussels, Heidelberg, Paris. Studies and work as doctor

The Romanian national poet to diagnosis

Exponent of Positivism and Enlightenment

Chapter 8:

From place to place

In Italy

In Belgium

The future Romania”

Friendship with V. Tcherkesov

Chapter 9:

Mișcarea Socială

For a free, socialist society


About the situation in Romania

Liberation and self-determination of women

Other areas of struggle

Elena Sevastos

Amilcar Cipriani

The „tyrant-murder“

Impacts in Romania

Chapter 10:

The state against anarchism

Examples of media campaigning against anarchists and (revolutionary) Jews

The assassination attempt on I.C. Brătianu 1909

The Expulsion of the anarchist Dascălu Sava (Solomon Abram)

Chapter 11:

For the emancipation of women

Women in the (publicist) focus

Chapter 12:

Revista Ideei

16 years of Enlightenment and Anarchism

In battle against religious darkness

Exploitation and class-struggle…

in the petroleum district

Expulsions of revolutionary workers

Romanian anarchist emigrants in the USA

La Coș” and the Free School in Edwardsville

Joseph Ishill

Ernestine Hara Kettler

The peasant uprising of 1907

The relation to „România Muncitoare“ and the social-democracy

Social-democrats against „Revista Ideei“

State surveillance and repression

Excursion: The divisions of the „Siguranța“

Examples of the surveillance of Panait Mușoiu and the „Revista Ideei“

Constant contributors

Iuliu Neagu-Negulescu

Against the war

Excursion: The First World War and Greater Romania

A view on readers and the diffusion of “Revista Ideei”

Excursion: the official assessment of “Revista Ideei” in state-capitalism (“Realsozialismus”)

The end of “Revista Ideei”

Chapter 13:

Anarchist and anarcho-syndicalist press

Paine şi Libertate“

Vremuri Noi“

Mişcarea Socială“

Syndicalist-Groups in Brăila and Galați

Vremuri Noi“ – the Second

Chapter 14:

Sorina, Azur and Cornelia

Cornelia Stefanescu

Chapter 15:

From Greater Romania to the Second World-War

Co-founders of the Romanian communist party: syndicalists and anarchists

Tireless libertarian propaganda

Literature of revolt and equality

Favours for the communists

Excursion: The anarcho-syndicalist organization of Bukovina

A retrospect of a strenuous life

Chapter 16:


Struggle on many fronts

A realist


Chronological table

Documents and appendix

Sources and literature

Index of names, places, magazines and organisations

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